The author analyzes major definitions of the term "information literacy" since the 1970s. Over time the meaning of information literacy has evolved and expanded. The skills and knowledge required to be information literate within the developing definitions are noted, as are the responses by the library profession. The article concludes by identifying three major trends from the 1990s.
Brock, Kathy Thomas. "Developing Information Literacy Through the Information Intermediary Process: A Model for Teacher-Librarians and Others." Emergency Librarian, 22 (September-October 1994) : 16-20.
The author develops a literature-based model which describes the intermediary activities of teacher-librarians as they assist students in each phase of the information search and use process (ISU). The purpose of the model is to describe or more clearly define the role of the teacher-librarian as an information intermediary.
Christensen, Peter G. "Using English Department Library Liaisons in a Term Paper Clinic: Reviving the Scholar/Librarian Model." Research Strategies, 12 (Fall 1994): 196-208.
The author presents a project at Marquette University in which two library liaisons (a librarian and an English Department instructor) assisted students in the writing of term papers for a freshman-level English course. The author argues for the usefulness of bibliographic instruction which is concerned more with the use of information than solely with the searching for or gathering of information. He suggests librarians would do well to become more involved in the full writing process and not just act as instructional intermediaries.
Edwards, Sherri. "Bibliographic Instruction Research: An Analysis of the Journal Literature from 1977 to 1991." Research Strategies, 12 (Spring 1994) : 68-78.
The author studied the bibliographic instruction literature from core journals to test the hypothesis that the number of research studies is growing. She found that the numbers have increased, although the ratio of research to non-research articles fluctuates greatly during any given year. When analyzed within five-year time spans, BI literature is fairly consistent with library literature as a whole in its percentage of research articles. Survey research, evaluation, and experimental research are the most frequently used methods in library instruction research studies.
Ford, Nigel, Frances Wood, and Christina Walsh. "Cognitive Styles and Searching." Online & CDROM Review, 18 (April 1994) : 79-86.
Reports the results of a study investigating the effect of cognitive style (Comprehension, Operation, and Versatile) on CD-ROM searching behavior. Searchers with different learning styles tend to use different search strategies. Versatile style searchers are the most effective. It was found that feedback, in the form of postings, enabled Comprehension and Operation style searchers to adapt their strategies resulting in improved searchers. Incorporating increasing knowledge of cognitive styles and strategies into training will impact how searchers learn to search as well as their searching behavior.
Holmes, Colette O., D. Elizabeth Irish, and Thomas C. Haley. "BI for an Undergraduate Engineering Course: An Interactive Model for a Large-Enrollment Course." Research Strategies, 12 (Spring 1994) : 115-121.
The authors describe an interactive library session based on the Karplus Learning Cycle. Given a scenario, students work briefly in pairs analyzing need for information within the scenario and responses are shared with the class. The students then form small groups, each exploring different library resources by completing a worksheet to guide them through the investigative process. Each group then makes a presentation to the class. To reinforce the library session, students complete an assignment requiring them to find an article. The interactive method supports the engineering instructors' course objectives and uses a subject/design related scenario.
Isbell, Dennis and Lisa Kammerlocher. "A Formative, Collegial Approach to Evaluating Course-Integrated Instruction." Research Strategies, 12 (Winter 1994) : 24-32.
This article describes various evaluation methods used to improve individual librarians' teaching performance. The methods include an evaluation form completed by classroom faculty, librarian/instructor devised student evaluations, and colleague observations. The guiding principles of the librarian-initiated program are presented and the benefits and shortcomings of the program are discussed.
Kalin, Sally and Carol Wright. "Internexus: Partnership for Internet Instruction." The Reference Librarian (Librarians on the Internet: Impact on Reference Services), 41/42 (1994) : 197-209.
The article describes a team approach undertaken at Penn State whereby library and computer center staff collaborate to provide Internet instruction. The authors present the questions the team addressed in the planning process, the project objectives, and the lessons learned from the pilot sessions regarding the structure and content of the presentations and personnel needs.
Leach, Bruce A. "Identifying CD-ROM Use Patterns as a Tool for Evaluating User Instruction." College and Research Libraries, 55 (July 1994) : 365-371.
The author analyzed CD-ROM sign-up sheets to determine for each individual the number of database uses, the number of academic quarters the databases were used, and the interval between first and last use. Staff impressions that new searchers used the databases only on one occasion and that a small number of habitual searchers were responsible for most of the system use were not confirmed by the study. With the knowledge of use patterns, CD-ROM instruction has been modified. Point of use instruction was strengthened and workshops are held less frequently but cover more sophisticated search techniques.
Lin, Poping. "Library Instruction for Culturally Diverse Populations: A Comparative Approach." Research Strategies, 12 (Summer 1994) : 168-173.
The author, a librarian at Purdue University, offers a library workshop and instruction program that integrates Western and Chinese modes of thinking. The workshops start with a holistic (Chinese mode) picture of how a library organizes its materials before focusing on the specifics of methods and sources (Western mode). Response has been positive; students see linkages between the library and its components rather than focusing on what buttons to push on specific tools.
McClure, Charles R. "Network Literacy: A Role for Libraries?" Information Technology and Libraries , 13 (June 1994) : 115-125.
This article provides a broad view of network literacy in an electronic society. The author examines types of literacies, including computer, media, and information literacy, and the development of information problem-solving skills. Issues such as increasing awareness of the importance of network literacy, reinventing education and libraries for the networked society, and creating a level playing field between public and private interests are addressed by the author.
O'Brien, Thomas V. and Marjorie M. Warmkessel. "A Mingling of Minds: An In-Class 'Conference' on Educational Theories." Research Strategies, 12 (Summer 1994) : 174-181.
An alternative assignment is described in which education students research an educational theorist in preparation for a mock conference. After being introduced to library resources, students prepare to participate in the conference by familiarizing themselves with the theorist's views, background, and relationship to other theorists' philosophies and then by assuming the role of the theorist. The article includes a worksheet of questions students use to guide their research and the conference agenda.
Page, Mary and Martin Kesselman. "Teaching the Internet: Challenges and Opportunities." Research Strategies, 12 (Summer 1994) : 157-167.
Suggestions are made for different styles and types of Internet instruction for all ages of students. Librarian cooperation with computer technicians is recommended to take advantage of both professions' skills and knowledge. The bottom line is that in order to use the multitudinous resources on the Internet, patrons must be urged to get started; there is no wrong place to start.
Reichel, Mary. "Intellectual Freedom and Library Instruction: The Centrality of the Connection." RQ, 33 (Summer 1994) : 471-475
In this "Library Literacy" column, the author discusses the connections among library instruction, information literacy, and intellectual freedom. It is suggested that an understanding of intellectual freedom issues will further cultivate a curiosity for learning. Some suggestions are given as to how librarians can incorporate intellectual freedom issues into instructional sessions.
Richardson, Gregg. "Computer-Assisted Library Instruction? Consider Your Resources, Commitment, and Needs." Research Strategies, 12 (Winter 1994) : 45-55.
Based on practical experience, the article discusses considerations in planning and designing an independent study undergraduate library skills course based on computer-assisted instruction, specifically Macintosh's HyperCard. The advantages and disadvantages of CAI for such a course are presented along with instructional design principles. Creating practical assignments that reinforce the CAI lessons and necessary resources are discussed as well.
Thomas, Joy. "Faculty Attitudes and Habits Concerning Library Instruction: How Much Has Changed Since 1982?" Research Strategies, 12 (Fall 1994) : 209-223.
In 1982 librarians at California State University Long Beach surveyed their faculty on how students learn library skills. Many of the faculty members assumed students learn to use the library without formal instruction from either librarians or classroom faculty. In 1990 the survey was re administered. Many of the CSULB faculty still seem to feel no responsibility for the students' learning of library skills. Findings on gender and rank difference, plus suggestions on efficient methods for focusing library instruction, conclude the article.
Truett, Carol, ed. "School Library Reference Services in the 90s: Where We Are, Where We're Heading." The Reference Librarian, 44 (1994) : entire issue.
In this issue of The Reference Librarian attention is focused on school media specialists, with many articles addressing the instructional role of media specialists. Among the issues discussed are: articulation of library skills from high school to college, resource-based teaching, the impact of the whole language movement on librarianship, teaching critical thinking through online searching, library instruction in the sciences, and the changing role of library media specialists.
Ury, Connie. "A Tiered Approach to Bibliographic Instruction: The MEDAL Program." Research Strategy, 12 (Fall 1994) : 247-250.
The article describes a four-stage bibliographic instruction program at Owens Library, Northwest Missouri State University. The successive goals of instruction for each level are presented. Of particular interest is the use of peer advisors, older students involved in the freshman seminar program, to provide basic library orientation tours.
Van Deusen, Jean Donham, and Julie I. Tallman. "The Impact of Scheduling on Curriculum Consultation and Information Skills Instruction." (Part One: The 1993-94 AASL/Highsmith Research Award Study). School Library Media Quarterly, 23 (Fall 1994) : 17-25.
Tallman, Julie I., and Jean Donham van Deusen. "External
Conditions as they Relate to Curriculum Consultation and Information
Skills Instruction by School Library Media Specialists." (Part Two:
The 1993-94 AASL/Highsmith Research Award Study). School Library
Media Quarterly, 23 (Fall 1994) : 27-31.
Tallman, Julie I., and Jean Donham van Deusen. "Collaborative Unit
Planning--Schedule, Time, and Participants." (Part Three: The
1993/94 AASL/Highsmith Research Award Study). School Library Media
Quarterly, 23 (Fall 1994) : 33-37.
Tallman, Julie I., and Jean Donham van Deusen. "Collaborative Unit Planning--Schedule, Time, and Participants." (Part Three: The 1993/94 AASL/Highsmith Research Award Study). School Library Media Quarterly, 23 (Fall 1994) : 33-37.
This three-part study examines the way in which students are scheduled into the library media center (fixed vs. flexible scheduling) and its effect on the library media specialist's consultation activities and information skills instruction. Several planning factors (e.g., amount of time spent in planning, principal's expectations for collaboration, etc.) are also examined to determine their relationship to the consultation and teaching role of library media specialists.
Zapata, Maria Elena. "The Role of Public Libraries in Literacy Education." Libri, 44 (1994) : 123-129.
The concept of literacy/illiteracy is placed within a social and economic context, linking directly access to resources and social wealth and opportunity. The author calls on public libraries to participate in making this fundamental right to the access of information possible. Means of supporting this effort are identified: by becoming allies with educational institutions; and by acting as a service unit for the general public, providing resources and services to support literacy education. Specific activities which public libraries might employ to participate in this mission are outlined.
This annotated bibliography was prepared by the Library Instruction Round Table's Continuing Education Committee: Scott Mandernack, Editor, Marilee Birchfield, Gail Egbers, Lorna Lueck, Susan Paznekas, Phillip Powell, Katherine Todd, and Jody Bales Foote, Committee Chair.
WELCOME BACK ISSUES Last revised January 5, 2000.