Bodi, Sonia. "Scholarship or Propaganda: How Can Librarians Help Undergraduates Tell the Difference?" The Journal of Academic Librarianship   21 (January 1995): 21-25.

In response to evaluations of BI sessions where students reported being satisfied with their ability to find information but not to evaluate it, librarians developed a session on critical assessment of library resources. This article discusses the characteristics of propaganda and includes a list of indicators distinguishing propaganda and scholarship. The article concludes with a description of a class in which these indicators were presented to help students evaluate a text.

Chappell, Virginia A., Randall Hensley, and Elizabeth Simmons-O'Neill. "Beyond Information Retrieval: Transforming Research Assignments into Genuine Inquiry." Journal of Teaching Writing   13, no. 1/2 (1994): 209-224.

This article describes the reasoning behind and use of an Evaluating Sources Workshop. This collaborative workshop, itself a collaboration between librarian and classroom instructor, teaches college students ways to analyze sources. Techniques for evaluating information include using bibliographic tools to retrieve information, but also act as a means for learning more about scholarly communication. By analyzing a pre- selected reading, students develop their own questions and explore the rhetorical and disciplinary contexts of research. The workshop can serve as a springboard for other collaborative assignments and classroom discussions. (Note: Although published in 1994, this issue was not received by committee members until summer 1995 and is therefore being included in the Top Twenty for 1995.)

Cook, Kim N., Lilith R. Kunkel, and Susan M. Weaver. "Cooperative Learning in Bibliographic Instruction." Research Strategies  13 (Winter 1995): 17-25.

This article offers a general discussion of cooperative learning, including its definition and characteristics. Two examples of cooperative learning BI assignments are discussed in detail, along with a thorough overview of the authors' research project on this topic. Although the research conducted did not yield the desired information on the effectiveness of cooperative learning, many students indicated a preference for working in groups. The practical advantages of cooperative learning are also discussed.

Cooper, Tasha, and Jane Burchfield. "Information Literacy for College and University Staff." Research Strategies  13 (Spring 1995): 94-106.

This article points out special problems in identifying the information needs of college and university staff, a group that is often overlooked in instructional outreach programs. The importance of fostering information literacy in this group, as opposed to providing special services is addressed. Suggestions for promoting this literacy such as staff development programs, tailored instruction, and effective promotion of the library are discussed.

Dame, Melvina Azar. "Teaching Library Skills and Content to Linguistically Diverse Students: The Role of Advance Organizers and Visual Resources." MultiCultural Review   4 (December 1995): 40-44.

In an article aimed at elementary and secondary teachers and librarians, the author outlines concrete methods to help ESL students link library skills with their existing knowledge. She suggests multi-sensory aids (such as pictures) help the student associate new concepts with prior knowledge. This process requires significant cooperation between the teacher and media specialist. Included are suggested types of aids and sources for locating and acquiring them.

DiMartino, Diane, William J. Ferns, and Sharon Swacker. "CD-ROM Search Techniques of Novice End-Users: Is the English-as-a-Second-Language Student at a Disadvantage?" College & Research Libraries   56 (January 1995): 49-59.

A comparison of the CD-ROM search techniques of native English speakers and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) speakers found that both groups of students had similar problems with search concepts and procedures. ESL students, however, had much more difficulty with vocabulary, such as the use of plurals and synonyms. The article concludes with recommendations for improving CD-ROM instruction for all users, including the specific vocabulary problems of ESL students.

Doran, Kirk. "The Internot: Helping Library Patrons Understand What the Internet is Not (Yet)." Computers in Libraries   15 (June 1995): 22-26.

The author stresses the importance of presenting a balanced view of the Internet, especially in light of recent media hype. He employs a number of negative definitions which illustrate the current limitations of the Internet. These definitions help to clarify the misconception that the Internet is "the answer to all quests" and enables users to understand the differences between the Internet and other valuable library resources.

Evans, Lorraine, and Peggy Keeran. "Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg: Expanding Students' Information Horizons." Research Strategies  (Fall 1995): 235-244.

With the addition of yet another electronic resource to their library, reference librarians at the University of Denver developed a new library instruction session which emphasizes broader information and search concepts, rather than specific database mechanics. The goals of the session are to teach searching skills that are transferable from one system to another and to enable users to evaluate the content and appropriateness of specific databases in relation to other library resources. The authors also discuss the results of a survey to determine the session's effect on participants' searching skills and confidence levels.

Gibson, Craig. "Critical Thinking: Implications for Instruction." RQ   35 (Fall 1995): 27-35.

This article provides a concise overview of the critical thinking movement in education, including a review of critical thinking theory and controversies within the movement. The author also discusses the implications of this approach for library instruction and concludes with some important questions to consider as we restructure our BI programs to integrate critical thinking skills.

Howze, Philip C., and Dana E. Smith. "Library Instruction as Independent Study: The Summer Enrichment Program Experiment at Iowa State University." Reference Services Review   23 (Winter 1995): 75-82.

This study of high school minority students enrolled in a library instruction course in a summer bridge program investigated the effects of multicultural vs. classical exercises and independent study vs. peer assistance on students' performance. Although some inconsistencies occurred in students' performance and their evaluation of the course, the study found that multicultural exercises and contact with a librarian instructor proved important to minority students. Other factors, including peer assistance, did not prove to be significant in this study; however, the authors stress the need for further investigation.

Jensen, Ann, and Julie Sih. "Using E-mail and the Internet to Teach Users at Their Desktops." Online   19 (September/October 1995): 82-8.

With remote access to databases becoming more prevalent, users are often reluctant to come to the library to learn how to use its resources. As a solution to this problem, engineering librarians from the University of California, San Diego, developed a six-part training program for the INSPEC database that can be accessed by E-mail. Users can have one lesson delivered per week or all six tutorials at once. The electronic tutorials reached an audience that had not been heard from before and will continue to be part of the bibliographic instruction program at San Diego and other UC campuses.

McFadden, T. G., and T. J. Hostetler, eds. "The Library and Undergraduate Education." Library Trends   44 (Fall 1995): 221-457. (entire issue)

Contributors to this issue of Library Trends explore the library's role in undergraduate education and the future of library user education programs. Common themes or issues that emerge include the importance of reading, literacy, and critical thinking, and the impact of rapidly changing technology. Many of the authors encourage librarians to redefine their role and take steps toward strengthening their involvement in undergraduate education.

Martin, Lynne M., ed. "Library Instruction Revisited: Bibliographic Instruction Comes of Age." The Reference Librarian  no. 51/52 (1995): 5-447. (entire issue)

Building on two previous special issues devoted to bibliographic instruction, this double issue of The Reference Librarian explores the history, progress, current status, and future challenges of BI. The articles reflect the "coming of age" of BI over the past decade, as well as the current issues of learning theories and pedagogy, collaboration and cooperation, technology and instruction, and diversity and multiculturalism.

Natowitz, Allen. "International Students in U.S. Academic Libraries: Recent Concerns and Trends." Research Strategies   13 (Winter 1995): 4-16.

A review of eighteen journal articles on international students' use of academic libraries reveals trends regarding cultural diversity issues on U.S. campuses and their impact on the provision of library services. Potential cultural, linguistic, and technological barriers, along with the training issues surrounding them, are identified and explored. It appears that these trends are just beginning to be recognized and programs aimed at increasing sensitivity in this area will help librarians cope with these demographic changes on campuses across the country.

Oberman, Cerise. "Unmasking Technology: A Prelude to Teaching." Research Strategies   13 (Winter 1995): 34-39.

This article, based on a speech presented to the ALA Library Instruction Round Table in New Orleans in 1993, stresses the importance of a balanced view of technology in order to provide appropriate library instruction. The author looks at three components of BI, encouraging a balanced approach in all areas: attitudes of users, attitudes of librarians, and values of librarians. This approach to instruction places technology in an appropriate context while assessing both its strengths and weaknesses.

Pitts, Judy M. "Mental Models of Information: The 1993-94 AASL/Highsmith Research Award Study." Edited by Joy H. McGregor and Barbara K. Stripling. School Library Media Quarterly   23 (Spring 1995): 177-184.

Presents the findings of a research study of a group of teenagers' information-seeking behaviors. The main question addressed by the study was: When students are seeking and using information, why do they make the decisions they make? The study found that a learning experience is made up of numerous "learning strands" (content, information seeking and use, life skills, and production). The strands are intertwined and when a learner experiences difficulty with one strand, the learner relies on prior learning involving another strand. The students in the study had no support or misguided directions for their information- seeking school assignments. The article concludes with recommendations for school library media and classroom professionals, professional preparation programs, and researchers.

Ragains, Patrick. "Four Variations on Drueke's Active Learning Paradigm." Research Strategies  13 (Winter 1995): 40-50.

The author describes four subject-based "one-shot" BI lesson plans which include active learning techniques. A basic overview of the jigsaw method is given, along with a detailed description of each lesson plan. Evaluative information is presented which was gathered from faculty and student experiences. The author offers several recommendations for implementing successful active learning instructional sessions.

Rettig, James. "The Convergence of the Twain or Titanic Collision? BI and Reference in the 1990s' Sea of Change." Reference Services Review  23 (Spring 1995): 7-20.

The author discusses the attitudes and philosophies that librarians have regarding the relationship of BI and reference services. He cites historical definitions, as well as recent ideas put forth by Roma Harris' research and Anne Lipow's Rethinking Reference Institutes. The author concludes that reference and BI, having both been affected by internal and external forces, have common goals focusing on user independence, which should lead toward collaboration in developing new philosophies and models for service.

Stripling, Barbara K. "Learning-Centered Libraries: Implications from Research." School Library Media Quarterly   23 (Spring 1995): 163-170.

The author, a library media specialist, translates research findings into practice through the "Thoughtful Learning Cycle." The cycle includes four content phases (Need to Know/Concept and Essential Questions, Information, New Understanding, and Assessment Product) and three process components (Inquiry, Synthesis/Decision Making, and Expression). Various strategies for engaging learners in each of the process components are given.

Todd, Ross J. "Integrated Information Skills Instruction: Does it Make a Difference?" School Library Media Quarterly   23 (Winter 1995): 133-38.

A report on research at Marist Sisters' College (Sydney, Australia) explores the impact of integrating library skills and science instruction in a high school course. Data indicates that mastery of both library skills and science content were improved in classes with integrated instruction. This article provides some concrete data to support intuitive concepts about effective approaches to instruction.

This annotated bibliography was prepared by the Library Instruction Round Table's Continuing Education Committee: Lorna Lueck, Co-Editor and Committee Chair, Scott B. Mandernack, Co-Editor, Abbie Basile, Marilee Birchfield, Lucia S. Dunn, Gail Egbers, Mari Ellen Leverence, Elizabeth Lorenzen, Phillip Powell, and Katherine Todd.

LIRT News, June 1996. Volume 18, number 4.
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